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Human milk has multiple components that likely mediate this anti-infectious, immunologically enhancing effect. These include secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozymes, intact cellular components, and oligosaccharides. A comprehensive list of compounds found in human milk by class of ingredient is shown in Table The neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding or supplying infants with human milk have received significant amounts of attention Lucas et al.
The general research on breastfeeding, human milk, and neurodevelopment is fraught with confounding variables that have prevented pinpointing specific nutrients that are responsible for the putative effect. Overall it appears that breastfed infants have modest improvements in cognitive, motor, and visual status up to the age of 8 years, but it is unclear whether any early effects disappear over time for review, see Grantham-McGregor et al.
The degree of neurodevelopmental advantage is directly related to duration of breastfeeding Mortensen et al. However critics of the literature point out that there may be fundamental differences not only between mothers who do or do not choose to breastfeed, but also between those who choose to breastfeed for a longer rather than shorter time period.
These selection biases may be based on characteristics e. Furthermore, patterns of parent-child interactions may be different in those who breastfeed longer; these interactions may have effects on development.
Just as it is difficult to separate out the confounding social factors among those who do and do not choose to breastfeed, it is also difficult to isolate the role of nutrition alone in the assessment of the positive effects. This is because very few individuals bottle-feed their infants human milk and, when this is done, it is frequently for medically extenuating circumstances e. Thus one cannot expect to rely on randomized trials of breastfeeding versus formula feeding or breastfeeding versus bottle feeding of human milk to sort out the nutritional effects of human milk on the developing brain.
The only trial that approached this issue was conducted by Lucas and coworkers , where preterm infants received either human milk or term infant formula by gavage tube during their early weeks.
Infants fed bottled human milk had higher mental and psychomotor development indices 18 months after hospital discharge. However it should be reiterated that these were premature infants and that they were not randomized to their particular diets.
Nevertheless there are reasons to think that the provision of human milk, based on its composition, is good for the human brain. However studies assessing the addition of these ingredients to cow-milk formula have not resulted in consistent effects.
Some demonstrated enhanced visual acuity and speed of processing in infants fed the supplemented formulas Uauy et al. The positive effects on visual acuity have been found most often in premature infants, who are arguably more deficient of these fats.
There may be effects on cognitive outcome, although the effects are inconsistent, particularly in term infants Auestad et al. The reason for these inconsistent effects might be that these compounds do not work alone; rather the matrix of human milk includes general growth factors and specific neural growth factors see Table If there is a positive effect on neurodevelopment, it is likely that these factors work in concert with each other.
The biological mechanisms of the positive effects are not always clear, but may relate to avoidance of exposure to antigenic proteins found in cow milk, particularly in relation to allergy.
The lack of clear biological mechanisms makes it more difficult to resolve conflicting results, such as those recently indicating an increased risk of atopy Sears et al.
The best documented risks include iron deficiency Duncan et al. The inability to sustain growth due to the low energy density of milk is relatively rare in the first 4 months of life in the breastfed infant. However there is great variability in the protein-energy density of human milk.
Most infants can overcome a lower-density milk by consuming a greater volume. Iron deficiency is approximately twice as common in breastfed infants; up to 30 percent have iron deficiency anemia, and more than 60 percent of the anemic infants are also iron deficient at 12 months of age Pisacane et al. The iron content of human milk is low: 0.
The absorption rate, however, is considerably higher.
Breastfed infants absorb up to 50 percent of consumed iron, compared with a 7- to percent absorption rate for formula-fed infants Fomon et al. The risk of iron deficiency increases after 4 months of age since most full-term infants are born with adequate iron stores to support hemoglobin synthesis through the first 4 months after birth.
There have been increasing reports of nutritional rickets in breastfed infants, particularly in northern climates Kreiter et al. This is likely due to lack of sunlight exposure, which is increasingly common with the use of sunscreens and the tendency to cover infants for health or cultural reasons. Since infants consume less than 0. With sun exposure this is not likely to be a problem.
However infants born to mothers with vitamin D deficiency are at increased risk for rickets, as are those who are not exposed to the sun. In addition to transplacental passage of environmental allergens and dietary antigens, it is possible that susceptible infants may be sensitized to such agents by exposure to maternal milk.
Breastfed infants can be exposed to environmental toxins e. A discussion of all of the potential environmental toxins, drugs, and infectious agents is beyond the scope of this chapter. However it is important to note the effect of increasing rates of HIV infection worldwide and the potential for human milk to be both a vector of transmission of the virus from mother to infant and to contain protective anti-infective factors that may decrease the risk of vertical transmission.
These risks and benefits must be weighed against the potential risks of formula feeding, not the least of which is preparation of formula with water contaminated with infectious agents Humphrey and Iliff, ; Mbori-Ngacha et al. This position has been taken by numerous professional bodies and reflects the fact that human milk is species specific and thus uniquely suited for human infant nutrition. It must be recognized, however, that using a human-milk composition or breastfeeding performance standard presents both regulatory and research issues when assessing the addition of ingredients new to infant formulas.
From a research standpoint, clinical studies that assess the effects of new ingredients will be difficult to design because infants cannot be randomized to be formula fed or breastfed. Furthermore, there may be significant non-nutritional confounding variables between the groups, including, but not limited to, factors related to which mothers breastfeed.
Finally, human-milk composition varies considerably among individuals and within individuals over time, while infant formula content remains constant. The committee anticipates that manufacturers will wish to add both ingredients that are currently contained in human milk, but not in formulas e.
Thus a breastfed control group should be part of experimental designs to assess the addition of ingredients new to infant formulas in order to provide a performance standard. From a regulatory standpoint, the effect of an ingredient new to infant formulas is usually driven by a manufacturer's desire to produce products that mimic the advantages of breastfeeding.
This motivation implies that formula in its current state is inferior e. Thus the safety and efficacy of any addition of an ingredient new to infant formulas will need to be judged against two control groups: one fed the previous iteration of the formula without the added ingredient, and one breastfed.
Breastfeeding Position Paper. Accessed February 5, Breast feeding and the use of human milk.
Pediatrics — Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency: New guidelines for vitamin intake. In: History of Pediatrics. Philadelphia: W. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Breaking the barriers to breastfeeding. J Am Diet Assoc — Growth and development in term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: A double-masked, randomized, parallel, prospective, multivariate study.
Pediatrics — Fetal origins of adult disease: Strength of effects and biological basis. Int J Epidemiol — Relation between infant feeding and infections during the first six months of life. J Pediatr — Infant formula development: Past, present and future.
Endocr Regul — Breastfeeding duration is a risk factor for atopic eczema. Clin Exp Allergy — Cytokines in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers. Pediatr Res — The oxidative desaturation of unsaturated fatty acids in animals.
Mol Cell Biochem — Clin Allergy — Energy expenditure and deposition of breast-fed and formula-fed infants during early infancy. Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants. Effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation on visual acuity and growth of preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Am J Clin Nutr — Dietary nucleotide effects upon immune function in infants. Insulin-like growth factor 1 is essential for normal dendritic growth. J Neurosci Res —9.
Oligosaccharides in human milk during different phases of lactation. Acta Paediatr Suppl — Differences in morbidity between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Growth factors in milk as mediators of infant development. Annu Rev Nutr — Iron and the exclusively breast-fed infant from birth to six months. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr — Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months protects against otitis media.
Increased epidermal growth factor levels in human milk of mothers with extremely premature infants. Dietary restrictions during pregnancy. Intestinal Immunology and Food Allergy. Buy Money — Master the Game here: bit. Covey was the keynote speaker. He had us stand up, cover eyes, and point to where we thought was north.
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Hughes Joshua Peters is a salesman in crisis — after losing a key deal his boss threatens him with the sack and he has doubts concerning his choice of career. His father is a sales veteran who progressed all the way to CEO but with their relationship is at an all time low and he struggles to help. I still give Formula 50 5 Stars because with the help of Jeff and inspiration of 50, matched with your dedication, results are practically guaranteed.
In the end, Jeff provides the best guidance and who wouldn't be inspired by 50? Jan 11, Cody rated it it was amazing. This is one of those books that was hard for me to put down except for the parts of the book that shouldn't have been narrated [the exercise routines]. I ended up downloading the audiobook from the library on a whim, hoping that it'd supplement my understanding of health and the human body.
What I got from listening was a bevy of amazing facts that have helped me better understand my own body through the lens of nutrition and physical health. Certain tips and tricks that I've learned through this book have motivated me to change the way that I take care of myself. With every self-help book I read, there are facts that I agree with and disagree with. What makes this book stand out from the others is the way the author encapsulates the facts in a way that makes me want more.
I'd recommend this book to anyone that wants to learn how to better take care of their brains and their bodies. Dec 28, Ryan DeLuca rated it really liked it.
Apr 14, Alexandra Chauran rated it it was amazing. Get fit like 50 Cent! This book was just as hilarious as you might expect. There were motivating quotes from rap lyrics mixed in with plenty of bro science. The bro science shared seemed on par with current consensus, so this book could very well be legit. The one downside is that the exercise plans are extremely complicated. Every day of tackling this program would have to be sat down and planned out like a damn bank heist.
I don't go to the gym to work out my brain, dude! Aug 29, Sarah rated it it was amazing. Right away the first pages earn your respect for 50 Cent, who doesn't drink or do drugs but rather wrote those songs because that what was selling. This book shows you the drive for health and self improvement of 50 Cent from the perspective of his workouts, resolve to commit to healthy choices, and intelligent nutrition.
It made me feel ready to hit the gym hard after each increment I read. Read instead Body by science or the paleo diet. Feb 27, Ariadna73 rated it liked it Shelves: Nothing new; but truly inspiring and highly energizing. Plus great paper and nice cover. It makes a really good book to keep at the house: Jun 06, Barry rated it really liked it. Jan 05, Pavel Dolecek rated it really liked it.
Russell Schmidt rated it did not like it Mar 04, Dawn Embers rated it liked it Apr 21,